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Tadelakt Lime Finishes

By Issue 63, Plaster, Water No Comments

By Ryan Chivers

Tadelakt SinkWith the modern development of natural building technologies, there has been a resurgence and rediscovery of ancient and traditional methods of plasterwork.  For over 10,000 years, in nearly every culture, humans have used lime as an applied material that serves as both function and decoration.  From the frescoes of the Italian Renaissance to the sculpted bas relief masks of the ancient Mayans, the chemistry, durability and elegant beauty of lime has, until modern times, been a staple of art and architecture the world over.  In the twentieth century, builders have all but forgotten how to work with earth and lime based mortars, and plasters. Thanks to the efforts of passionate builders, craftspeople, architects and designers, and many within the natural building community, these old ways are being revived and put into practice once again.  Collectively we are relearning how to successfully formulate and apply traditional plasters, using locally sourced materials and modern tools.

The rich and mysterious culture of Morocco offers one example of an ancient lime plaster art, nearly lost, which is now enjoying a rebirth – Tedelakt

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Finishing Bale Walls with Siding – TLS #57

By Bales, Building Science, Design, Plaster, Straw Bale Construction, Technical, Walls, Water 2 Comments

This article appeared in TLS #57.

Loose Strings: Technical Discussions
by Jeff Ruppert – Colorado, USA
T e c h T i p s

A little known fact in the bale building realm is that a handful of people scattered across different continents have experimented with the idea of finishing their bale walls with wood or some type of manufactured siding. The technical term for siding over a bale wall assembly is a “rain screen.” The use of a rain screen (sometimes referred to a “multiple defense assembly”) on a bale wall plays the role of keeping rainwater off of the bale portion of the wall. This is in contrast to the standard way of finishing a bale wall with plaster and allowing moisture to come into contact with it on a regular basis (also referred to as “faceseal” walls). In fact, almost all of the literature to date on bale-wall construction makes the assumption that they are faceseal assemblies.

In this article, we are going to take a look at the pros and cons of in-stalling siding over a bale wall. To some people the idea of not having a plaster finish on a bale house would seem weird, mainly due to aesthetic reasons. However, for those who have chosen to use siding, aesthetics take a backseat to function due to high rates of rainfall throughout the year, as well as constant high humidity. The option of allowing bale walls to even get wet in the first place is not an option and therefore other systems must be considered.

For those of us who live in drier climates, the consideration of moisture is not as dire, therefore giving us more choices. However, doesn’t the siding option make sense if you are concerned about moisture at all? If you would like to design a building with mixed finishes, such as a combination of plaster, masonry and siding, this would open up the opportunity to include bale walls as an option on those projects. In fact, by installing a rain screen over bale walls are we not greatly reducing the potential for moisture damage, as David Eisenberg puts it, by “designing problems out of the project” from the start? We will explore these issues and hopefully offer you another choice in your search for solutions.

Rain Screens
In the old days, a rain screen was simply an exo-barrier that was attached to a building to catch rainwater and shed it before it could hit the structure behind it. The Norwegians titled this approach the “open-jointed barn technique,” since originally it was used in conjunction with the construction of barns1.

With tighter construction and newer forms of finishes, the technology of rain screens has evolved into a science. One of the advantages of using a rain screen on a bale wall is that, no matter
how you do it, it will probably add a significant layer of protection that would otherwise not exist. This assumes that you do not install the siding to accidentally direct water into the wall. The potential exists for this to happen, so just like any other type of finish, pay attention to the details!

Siding over bale walls

Siding over bale walls

No matter what type of wall you build, the driving forces of moisture will be:

  • Air pressure difference (gradient)
  • Gravity
  • Surface tension
  • Capillary action
  • Rain drop momentum.

The dominant force acting on your walls will be the difference in air pressure across the siding itself.  As the wind blusters around your house, there are pockets of less and more pressure ever changing within and around your wall assemblies. The main goal is to minimize any pressure differences so water is not accidentally driven into the wall assembly. By minimizing pressure differences, the main force acting on nearby moisture will then be gravity, drawing water down to the ground where it belongs, before it reaches your bales.

In order to equalize pressure, an air gap behind the cladding (siding) needs to be well ventilated to the atmosphere. This can be achieved through different methods, but whatever you do, make sure not to create a gap for wind to blow rain behind the cladding. This means providing ventilation behind the siding so air can pass through easily, but including a barrier at the points of ventilation to keep wind-driven rain from entering.

The advantages of using a rain screen are:

  • Adds another option for finishing bale walls (aesthetic),
  • Keeps moisture completely off the bale portion of the wall assembly,
  • Provides replaceable/changeable finish,
  • Has low or no maintenance (depending on material),
  • Uses local materials in northern climates near forested areas.

The disadvantages of using a rain screen are:

  • Plaster finish is not an option on a bale wall,
  • May not be as durable as some types of plaster,
  • Materials may not be sustainable or even available in your area,
  • Aesthetic of siding may not match your project.

Rain Screen Concept on Bale Walls

It is important to remember that no matter how we finish bale walls, they must be sealed with plaster. This means that even if we choose to use a rain screen, we must apply at least one coat of plaster. One way to install siding on bale walls is to first install nailers for the siding. These can be in the form of 2-in.x2-in. wood strips attached to the sill plate and beam at the top of your bale wall.
We recommend attaching the nailers before stacking the bales, but you can do it afterwards if you like. Once the nailers and bales are in place, one coat of plaster is applied between the nailers. A rough coat of plaster over the bales is all that is necessary. Little or no troweling is required because no one will ever see the results. After plastering, building paper is stapled to the nailers and the siding is then installed, leaving a gap behind the paper for ventilation and drainage.

One issue of concern with this method is the gaps that can occur between the plaster and nailers as the nailer wood shrinks over time. These gaps can allow air to ?ow in and out of the bale wall, creating a loss of insulating value, as well as a path for insects and/or rodents. Extra care and/or the application of caulk can take care of these gaps. Also, these gaps can be eliminated if the nailers are installed after plaster is applied. Whatever you do, be sure that a gap remains between the back of the siding and the plaster.

This is but one way to install siding on to a bale wall. There are variations to this concept, but the goals remain the same – keeping rainwater and back-splash off your bale walls. Pay attention to the details and remember the forces that are acting on water that comes into contact with your walls. Holding these basic concepts in mind will help you design your wall system. And most important, do your homework first!

Happy wall building!

Resources
1. Rainscreen Cladding: A Guide to Design Principles and Practice.Anderson, J.M. & Gill, J.R. Butterworth-Heinemann, 1988.
www.shildan.com/Rainscreen/History.htmlhttp://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/ctus/17_e.htmlwww.greenhomebuilding.com/pdf/RainScreen.pdfwww.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/inpr/bude/himu/coedar/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/get?le.cfm&PageID=70139

Ed.Note: Jeff encourages TLS readers to send in questions and comments to The Last Straw. There may be outstanding issues that builders are dealing with that most laypeople may not aware of. There are always many questions from people new to straw-bale construction. With this in mind, this column is offered and intended to encourage everyone to educate themselves to the fullest extent regarding building construction, and we are here to help in any way we can. This forum endeavors to offer the best of our knowledge, with no claim to its completeness, but to the spirit of bale building as a continuing evolution of one form of habitat within the larger realm of natural building. We offer this forum for dialogue, with no implication of being right or wrong. This forum is for you, the learner, artisan and teacher.

Jeff Ruppert, P.E., Principal, Odisea LLC, Ecological Building, Engineering and Consulting, P.O. Box 1505, Paonia CO 81428, 970.948.5744  <[email protected]> www.odiseanet.com
Jeff has been in the construction trades for over 25 years, beginning as a laborer and draftsman on his father’s construction projects. He has spent many years working on construction projects he designs, and is a licensed engineer in Colorado.

Build Your Own Simple Bale Wall Moisture Sensor – TLS #57

By Building Science, Plaster, Products, Straw Bale Construction, Technical, Walls, Water No Comments

This article appears in issue #57 of TLS.  There have been other articles about moisture sensors in recent years.

drillby Habib John Gonzalez – British Columbia, Canada

This article appeared in a slightly longer version in TLS#22/Spring 1998.

Here are the simple steps and materials needed to build your own bale wall moisture sensor:

1. Determine what depth of the bale you want to monitor and cut the 3/4-inch PVC pipe to that length.

2. Make the white pine sensor disk 1/8-in. thick to fit snugly into one end of the pipe.

3. Solder two lengths of telephone wire to two pairs of small bolts. One end of the pair of wires is bolted to a PVC pipe cap so the tips will protrude from the finished interior wall. The other end of the wires will be bolted to the sensor disk.

4. Use epoxy to glue the disk to one end of the pipe; run the wires through the pipe and fasten the other pair of bolts to the interior wall end cap. Glue the cap to the pipe.

5. Glue a perforated pipe cap over the sensor end of the pipe.

sensor6. The sensor is ready for installation in the bale wall.

7.The TimberCheck moisture meter is available from www.leevalley.com

8. A number of bale wall moisture studies were sponsored by the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). You can get a summary of all of the CMHC moisture work on their web site www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/publications/en/rh-pr/tech/dblist.cfm?mode=year.  Scroll down to the bottom of the list for 00-103 (year 2000, document 103) on straw-bale moisture monitoring.

schematic

 

 

 

1. Outer end-cap
2. Perforated PVC pipe
3. Wood disk with screws
4. Wires
5. PVC pipe
6. Inner end-cap
7. Screw contacts

Better Quality, Ecological Correctness through Sustainable Design – TLS #59

By Bales, Community, Design, Fire, Uncategorized, Water No Comments

This article appeared in TLS #59.

by Ken Haggard and Polly Cooper – California, USA

Adopted from an article that appeared in Home Power Magazine.

Straw-bale cottage during construction.

Straw-bale cottage during construction.

Like many other architectural firms in California, San Luis Obispo Sustainability Group architects had been designing building that utilized passive solar for many years. Like many other architectural firms around the country, and around the world, in recent years we found ourselves shifting our design work to “sustainability,” an extension of passive solar design concepts.

The definition of sustainability we use in our work is to use resources that meet our needs but do not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their needs. As our firm and the work we do evolved, our practice has evolved to encompass broader issues including life cycle impacts of materials, miniaturization of infrastructure, health issues in buildings, permaculture and landscape regeneration.

By 1994, we had developed a comfortable working environment, consisting of a mix-used passive solar complex that included an office, shops and a residence on an old trout farm adjacent to the Los Padres National Forest, 12 minutes north of the city of San Luis Obispo. Little did we imagine that we would endure the trauma of losing nearly everything we owned or that this tragedy would afford an opportunity to redevelop our complex based on our new knowledge of sustainability. In August 1994, the 41 Wild Fire that burned 40,000 acres/16,200 hectares in our area destroyed our entire complex, and forced us into applying these broader principles of sustainable design for ourselves. Once we got over the initial shock of losing an extensive library, slide collection, office and home, it became more and more obvious what an opportunity our natural fire-oriented local ecology offered us – we could start from scratch and build sustainably, without the problem associated with retrofitting existing structures.

One of the first things we realized was that the fire had left us with a large inventory of building material. (We had several strawbale benches on the site before the fire. They turned out to be more fire resistant than most of the stucco-, tile- and metal-clad buildings in the canyon.) It had killed most of the mature trees (except for 2/4 of the fire-adapted oaks), and these trees were now available to use as lumber. We would never have dared touch them while they were alive. In addition, the massive opening-up of the landscape afforded by the fire allowed us to examine our aging infrastructure. We realized it could be redone in a much more sustainable way. Landscape regeneration became an everyday reality, not some theoretical subject. We suddenly could do things that we had only talked about, but never had the time to do – like getting off the electrical grid.

cottage2

Completed straw-bale cottage.

Right after the fire, it was necessary to develop a base of operations – a place to store tools, plan from and live in. We attempted to combine this need with several others, such as providing future retreat for guests and visitors, as well as a demonstration workshop for our senior sustainable design architecture class at Cal Poly State University. The result was a 500 sf/46m2 cottage that we built on a slab that was left from a shed we had removed long ago. his was one of the few slabs in the canyon not destroyed by the re, because it supported no flammable building at the time. For the structure of this building, we used fire-damaged telephone polls with a truss joist frame. We built the walls from rice straw bales laid on edge, which provide good insulation. In addition, the stucco finish provides interior distributed thermal mass. For the ceiling, we used wheat straw bales laid flat between TJI rafters, which also provide good insulation. The roof is corrugated steel sheet, and includes a 4-ft.x 8-ft/1.2mx3.4m skylight with skylid (movable insulation) unit. Our electrical power came from a Pelton wheel (a microhydro system) on the creek connected to storage batteries.

The construction of this building used healthier building materials that produced less waste. The unused straw was used for erosion control on the site. The building also gets much of its heat from the sun, and uses waste as a resource. In addition, the structure served as a prototype to test details that we planned to use in the larger buildings.

Sustainable Materials

In sustainable design circles, there is a lot of talk about the advantages of using regional materials. As practitioners, we always had nagging doubts about how much of this is truth and how much is idealized theory. Once construction of the guest cottage was underway, we turned our attention to testing this theory. There were several stands of mature trees on the site, especially in the creek areas. The oaks, Sargent cypress and several pine species were native. The Douglas fir and redwoods were not, although their natural range on the coast extends to just 10 miles/48 km north of the site. They were planted 33 years ago when the trout pods were developed. After the fire, all the redwoods put our new growth immediately, and three-quarters of the oaks sprouted from at least part of the remaining trunks. The other trees were killed. We now had an opportunity to do what passive solar applications do – use resources directly on the site rather than importing them from far away and exporting the impact elsewhere.

We felt obligated to mill the dead trees into lumber for reconstruction. We hired sawyers to do this during the fall of 1994, suing a wood Miser portable mill. Both we and the sawyers were amazed at the quantity and quality of wood produced in this relatively small area. We harvested 22,000 board feet of lumber, enough for construction of the other buildings with enough left over to be a storage, rain and sun protection chore. The economics of this also created the unusual condition of using straw-bale construction in conjunction with heavy timber construction, as it was more economical to mill big pieces rather than small ones.

The result of this experience was very interesting. The wood we obtained cost about the same as it would have from a lumberyard, but the quality was much higher. In addition, all phases of the life cycle of this material – source, transport, processing, use and source regeneration – happened on the site. Waste could not be exported elsewhere. It became a resource used for erosion control and organic matter for the regenerative process.

It became obvious to us that although the first costs of both milling our own lumber and buying it from a lumber yard were about the same, the long-range environmental costs of milling our own was much less. These costs are not often accounted for in our present economic system.

The Studio/Office

interiorThe next step was construction of the studio and office, completed at the end of March 1995. Because of the function of this building, we placed great emphasis on natural lighting in addition to the passive solar design. The studio/office is also off-grid, powered by photovoltaic (PV) panels over the library/research area, with a Pelton wheel on the adjacent creek for use as backup in the winter when the water is high. (Two streams fed by the nearby mountain range flow through the property.) The studio/office is heavy timber-frame construction with straw-bale infill.

The south side of the office is configured to allow maximum sun penetration in the winter and begins to shade itself in early April. During the summer months, it is totally in shade, picking up sun again in late September. Parts of this facade are view windows, part unvented 12-in./30cm Trombe walls that also act as shear walls, and part 9-inch-thick/23cm water tanks below the south-facing window on each end that act as indirect gain passive heaters. The Trombe walls and water tanks are painted with a selective surface paint on the sun-facing side.

The wiggly light shelf on this south facade serves two purposes: providing summer shading of the windows and low water tanks and throwing light deeper into the building in winter. This office is also designed for maximum night ventilation. Summer breezes generally flow from southwest to northeast, so the air moves through the long dimension of the office. These breezes, coupled with the large amount of distributed thermal mass in the building, keeps the interior temperatures below 79oF/26oC, even when daytime summer temperatures are quite hot, occasionally reaching 110oF/43oC.

The Residence

The two-story residence of the complex was completed in October 1997. We used construction techniques similar to those in the office, except that the heavy timber structure is placed 6 in./15cm inside the straw-bale walls. This configuration allowed us to expose the beautiful timber frame and create a continuous two-story straw-bale wall without interruption of the north side. The curves of this wall were very easy to achieve with straw bales without any added expense. This is the best arrangement of the timber structure and bale walls we’ve found to date. There are remarkably few cracks in this wall. The contrast to the stuccoed wood shear walls on the east side is very telling.

The residence uses interior 8-in./20cm concrete block walls as shear walls, thermal mass and decorate “gates.” Besides south-facing glass, skylights provide direct gain, with skylids as thermal control. We’ve found that this system offers more flexibility in the fall and spring than fixed overhangs.  The El Nino weather pattern sometimes produces a very unusual cool late spring, which we cannot respond to in the studio with its fixed overhangs. The skylight/skylid arrangement in the residence did allow us to respond to these unusual climatic conditions. The residence is also off-grid, powered by the PV system and Pelton wheel backup that provides electricity to the rest of the complex.

Landscape Regeneration

exteriorOne of the unexpected joys of this whole ordeal has been to experience the rapid regeneration of the landscape following the fire. Fire is such an integral part of the native California landscape that everything is set up for it. The first spring was dominated by delicate fire poppies, which only appear in newly burned areas.   In this case the seeds had been waiting 60 years for their chance – it had been that long since this area last burned. The next year was dominated by morning glories, which spread all over the armature of the burned branches of earlier plants. The third year was the year of low herbal plants – sages, bush poppies, soap roots and others.  In the fourth year, we found the Ceonothus (wild lilac) dominating. The regeneration of oak and cypress trees then began to be much more noticeable.

The best wood for reconstruction turned out to be the Sargent cypress, used for the structure and trim. Alder was the best for cabinets. The cypress trees regenerated naturally because they were a fire species whose seeds are stimulated when they are burned. When the office was done, to commemorate the wonderful alder cabinet it contains, we planted several times the number of alders in the creek than were there before the fire.

Better Quality, Ecological Correctness

We’ve found that the application of our design theories to our own situation has helped convince clients and others that sustainability is more than just another theory. It is a way of achieving better value while simultaneously having far less impact on our planet. In fact, once we get beyond the fears of scarcity that haunt our industrial culture, we will see that these two values – better quality and ecological correctness – are interrelated.

Ken Haggard and Polly Cooper are principals with the San Luis Obispo Sustainability Group, 16550 Oracle Oak, Santa Margarita, California 93453; 805.438.4452, fax 805.428.4680 <[email protected]> www.slosustainability.com

Ed.Note – An article about the curved wall straw-bale workshop building (not pictured in this issue) at Ken and Polly’s complex will be included in TLS#60/Details, Details, Details. It’s amazing in its design and structure.

Planted Filter: A Modern Reed-bed System – TLS #58

By Technical, Wastewater, Water No Comments

This article originally appeared in TLS #58.

by Rene Kilian – Denmark

Save money on your black and grey water while protecting the environment!

Reeds and iris clean the wastewater in the planted filter.

Reeds and iris clean the wastewater in the planted filter.

All properties without sewage facilities in rural areas of Europe must meet minimum standards for wastewater treatment. It can be expensive joining on to the main sewage lines. A planted filter’ – a modern kind of reed-bed system with vertical waterflow – has low operating costs and is an inexpensive alternative.

Approximately 30 of these filters have been built in Denmark. The systems are planted with wetland plants, and occupy around 16m2 per dwelling.

The system complies with the latest Danish standards, which are stricter than the European standard.

Along with this, environmental impact is reduced and the homeowner can save money on sewage connection and payments.  The investment can be paid for through savings in less than five years, when compared to a standard sewage connection. Here is an example.

Reuse of treated wastewater
Søren Raffnsøe built his own straw-bale house, went about it in a way that was as environmentally and economically friendly as possible. The way that water comes in and out of the house has
been considered in a holistic manner, and is the first of its kind in Denmark.

The house has its own planted filter to treat wastewater. The system is only 8m2 because the house has a composting toilet.

The planted filter is a biological-cleaning system. The system, designed by René Kilian, is an effective alternative to a sewage connection. The system can even be integrated into a garden where it could resemble a garden bed growing with thatching reeds, iris and bullrushes.

Figure 1. A recycling system with the planted filter where water is reused in the washing machine and garden.                   1. Sedimentation Sedimentation tank for grey wastewater only. The source of the water may vary depending on local codes or regulations but might include water from bath, washing machine and kitchen. 2. Pump well with a level controlled pump. 3. Reed bed system or constructed wetland. 4. Tank for treated wastewater and treated rainwater. 5. “Green” pipe for reuse water to washing machine and garden. 6. Water vitalizer in drinking water pipe. 7. Fine filter for treatment of rainwater. 8. Untreated rainwater toward sand catcher and infiltration unit. 9. “Black”’wastewater from toilet to compost container. 10. Urine from toilet to urine container Design by Kilian Water Ltd., Denmark

Figure 1. A recycling system with the planted filter where water is reused in the washing machine and garden. 1. Sedimentation Sedimentation tank for grey wastewater only. The source of the water may vary depending on local codes or regulations but might include water from bath, washing machine and kitchen. 2. Pump well with a level controlled pump. 3. Reed bed system or constructed wetland. 4. Tank for treated wastewater and treated rainwater. 5. “Green” pipe for reuse water to washing machine and garden. 6. Water vitalizer in drinking water pipe. 7. Fine filter for treatment of rainwater. 8. Untreated rainwater toward sand catcher and infiltration unit. 9. “Black”’wastewater from toilet to compost container. 10. Urine from toilet to urine container Design by Kilian Water Ltd., Denmark

The recycled water becomes so clean that you can reuse it to flush the toilet, wash clothes and water the garden. As compost toilets don’t use water, Søren uses the water only in his washing machine and garden. See Figure 1.

Along with this, he saves 50 percent in his usage of drinking-quality water. To collect the excess recycled water, he has made a little pond in the garden, where there is an extra cleaning process that created a habitat for plants and animals. The drinking water itself is also special. He has installed a ’vitalizer’ in his drinking water pipes. This revitalizes the water so it attains the same quality as spring water.

Payback in less than five years

A planted filter of 16m2 suitable for a normal household, will cost around 60,000 Danish kroner/$11,083.80 USD. Connection to public sewage costs one household around 40,000 kroner/$7,389.21 USD. The investment can be paid back in less than five years, as you can save on annual wastewater bill payments. Ongoing costs for a planted filter are 0 kroner /m3; there is just a government tax of 1.60 kroner /m3. Costs for sewage are approximately 35 kroner /m3. This means a dífference of nearly 33.50 kroner / m3. With an average consumption of 170m3 per year, a household would save around 5,700 kroner/$1,052.96 USD per year, or 140,000 kroner/$25,862.20 USD after 25 years.

The planted filter at 8m2 in front of the newly built straw-bale house.

The planted filter at 8m2 in front of the newly built straw-bale house.

If you chose a reuse system in addition to this, and saved 50 percent on water consumption, you save 7,000 kroner/$1,293.11 USD per year. After 25 years, you will have saved 175,000 kroner /$32,327.80 USD. With the correct wastewater solution, you can really save money and protect the environment.